日本ヒートアイランド学会論文集 Vol.12 (2017)
Relationship between heat mortality and temperature distribution in the Tokyo ward area: Analysis for the 2013 summer.
The distribution of heat mortality in the ward area of Tokyo was examined on the basis of 135 cases that were subtracted from postmortem data of the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office in 2013. It was found that heat mortality was higher in the periphery of the city than in its central part. The mortality of each ward was negatively correlated to the mean income with a coefficient of -0.49, which was statistically significant at the 5% level. For a given value of mean income, inland wards tended to show higher mortality than wards in other areas, in agreement with higher daytime temperature in the inland area. It was also found that the mortality in wards along Tokyo Bay tended to be higher in a period of higher temperature in the coastal area. These facts provide observational evidence for the dependence of the distribution of heat mortality on social and meteorological factors.
Formation factors of microclimate around a high-rise building in winter season - Examining by coupled analysis of heat balance simulation and CFD -
Microclimate in building outdoor spaces is important for thermal comfort and energy saving of buildings. This study focuses on the formation factors of microclimate at the sunshade area of a high-rise building in winter season by using the coupled analysis method of heat balance simulation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The remote sensing and mobile observation confirmed that the surface temperature was low and the air temperature was lower than other places at sunshade areas in the winter. These phenomena cannot be reproduced by the heat balance simulation without coupled analysis with CFD. The coupled analysis reproduces the low temperature microclimate in the building shade. It also shows that the low surface temperature and air temperature are caused by interaction between cold storage of the materials of grounds in the sunshade and the cold air generated by them. These phenomena can be confirmed not only in enclosed spaces like a street canyon but also in the open space around the high-rise building.